In the Indira Gandhi Canal command area also intensive irrigation has led to sharp rise in sub-soil water level, leading to water-logging, soil salinity and alkalinity. This is a serious problem which can be solved by using more manures and fertilizers. In most cases, these farmers are forced, under socio-economic conditions, to carry on distress sale of their produce. Irrigation becomes difficult on such small and fragmented fields. Here are the major issues and solutions to agricultural problems:. Another 19 per cent were small holdings (1-2 hectare) taking up 17.3 per cent of the total operated area. The problem of small and fragmented holdings is more serious in densely populated and intensively cultivated states like Kerala, West Bengal, Bihar and eastern part of Uttar Pradesh where the average size of land holdings is less than one hectare and in certain parts it is less than even 0.5 hectare. Such distress sale deprives the farmers of their legitimate income. Power availability for carrying out various agricultural operations has been increased to reach a level of 14 kW per hectare in 2003-04 from only 0.3 kW per hectare in 1971-72. The main suppliers of money to the farmer are the money-lenders, traders and commission agents who charge high rate of interest and purchase the agricultural produce at very low price. High Yielding Variety Programme (HYVP) was launched in 1966-67 as a major thrust plan to increase the production of food grains in the country. Storage facilities in the rural areas are either totally absent or grossly inadequate. The size of the holdings will further decrease with the infinite Sub-division of the land holdings. This is testified by the success story of agricultural progress in Punjab Haryana and western part of Uttar Pradesh where over half of the cropped area is under irrigation! Plagiarism Prevention 4. The Working Group on additional storage facilities in rural areas has recommended a scheme of establishing a network of Rural Storage Centres to serve the economic interests of the farming community. Production of breeder and foundation seeds and certified seeds distribution have gone up at an annual average rate of 3.4 per cent, 7.5 per cent and 9.5 per cent respectively, between 2001-02 and 2005-06). The Parse Committee estimated the post-harvest losses at 9.3 per cent of which nearly 6.6 per cent occurred due to poor storage conditions alone. Prohibited Content 3. Little or no use of machines is made in ploughing, sowing, irrigating, thinning and pruning, weeding, harvesting threshing and transporting the crops. In the absence of sound marketing facilities, the farmers have to depend upon local traders and middlemen for the disposal of their farm produce which is sold at throw-away price. Uttar Pradesh recorded the highest average sales of tractors during the five year period ending 2003-04 and/West Bengal recorded the highest average sales of power tillers during the same period. Large tracts of fertile land suffer from soil erosion by wind and water. But unfortunately, this plan has not succeeded much. Just as a well-nourished body is capable of doing any good job, a well nourished soil is capable of giving good yields. It has been felt that organic manures are essential for keeping the soil in good health. According to an estimate 85 per cent of wheat and 75 per cent of oil seeds in Uttar Pradesh, 90 per cent of Jute in West Bengal, 70 per cent of oilseeds and 35 per cent of cotton in Punjab is sold by farmers in the village itself. Agricultural implements and machinery are a crucial input for efficient and timely agricultural operations, facilitating multiple cropping and thereby increasing production. Some progress has been made for mechanising agriculture in India after Independence. In this way the holdings become smaller and more fragmented with each passing generation. In order to maintain the quality of the fertilizers, 52 fertilizer quality control laboratories have been set up in different parts of the country. Privacy Policy 8. One can think of many disadvantages of low-technology practices, including traditional agriculture. Table 22.3 Institutional Credit to Agriculture: Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. There was practically no use of chemical fertilizers at the time of Independence As a result of initiative by the government and due to change in the attitude of some progressive farmers, the consumption of fertilizers increased tremendously. Traditional farming is not only the world’s oldest farming method but also the main source of improving phase of farming technology like conventional, modern and organic farming it promote genetic … What are the Main Features of the National Agricultural Policy of India? Indian seeds programme largely adheres to limited generation system for seed multiplication. TOS 7. A large industrial base for manufacturing of the agricultural machines has also been developed. Copyright 10. There has been a steady increase in the flow of institutional credit to agriculture over the years (Table 22.3). This scheme provides storage facilities to the farmers near their fields and in particular to the small and marginal farmers. The government has given high incentive especially in the form of heavy subsidy for using chemical fertilizers. The Central Government is also implementing the scheme for establishment of national Grid of Rural Godowns since 1979-80. If there are four tracts which are to be distributed between two sons, both the sons will get smaller plots of each land tract. Since the agriculturists’ capital is locked up in his lands and stocks, he is obliged to borrow money for stimulating the tempo of agricultural production. Although legislation for consolidation of holdings has been enacted by almost all the states, it has been implemented only in Punjab, Haryana and in some parts of Uttar Pradesh. However, it is often more sustainable and less polluting than similar industrial techniques. Distribution of assured quality seed is as critical as the production of such seeds. Not Enough Agricultural Land. Indian soils have been used for growing crops over thousands of years without caring much for replenishing. Large holdings (above 10 hectare) accounted for only 1.6 per cent of total holdings but covered 17.4 per cent of the operated area (Table 22.1). Different tracts have different levels of fertility and are to be distributed accordingly. There is urgent need to mechanise the agricultural operations so that wastage of labour force is avoided and farming is made convenient and efficient. Agricultural marketing still continues to be in a bad shape in rural India. Agriculture is an important industry and like all other industries it also requires capital. The fertilizer problem is, therefore, both acute and complex. Linking each village by metalled road is a gigantic task and it needs huge sums of money to complete this task. Need for mechanisation was specially felt with the advent of Green Revolution in 1960s. Such a situation arises due to the inability of the poor farmers to wait for long after harvesting their crops. A lot of time and labour is wasted in moving seeds, manure, implements and cattle from one piece of land to another. The steady industrial growth coupled with the ever-increasing urbanization is leaving little to no room for any agricultural land.