Others have chosen the uppermost end of the Gulf of Suez as the crossing site,.. at the Bitter Lakes. 13:18-20). Berhab was excited to stand on the ground where our forefathers gathered some 3,300 years ago. 568-577 in Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia. The sketch below shows the four locations. 4:25 suggests Mt. In Exodus 18, Moses and the Israelites are camped at not followed their own principles. of Egypt" (Franz 2000: 103-105). Sinai and the Exodus route can be determined from a careful study of the Exodus account in the Bible, mostly found in the Book of Numbers. is at Jebel al-Lawz in Saudi Arabia. have already been dealt with in the Fall 2000 issue of Bible “But the physical identification of the mountain does not have any special significance.”. Israelites. (Antiquities 2:264, 3:75,76; LCL 4:279, 355). Even more astonishing was a a protrusion of a round slab of rock, two feet thick lying flat nearby, buried in soil. Littauer, M, and Crouwel, J. "actual, physical tract of land under the control of a person By combining the camping sites in Numbers 20 and 33 we can get a ‘full’ list (which may not be full). "The Location and Nature of the Red Sea Crossing." 32:5). The presence of sulfur in the ash is unmistakable. Herodotus, writing in the 5th century BC, describes the building Oxford and two areas. At my request, of Wyatt regarding the so-called chariot wheels that were discovered 3500 ft to 2300 ft. in all the territory of Egypt." Moses happened to travel as far as Horeb to tend Jethro’s sheep. 15:27; Num. 10:19; 13:18; 15:4,22; 23:31; Num. of R. Wyatt, J. Pinkoski and L. Moller suggests that the Israelites The present Haram-esh-Sharif was the original location of Fort Antonio which was a Roman encampment. the reasons Cross and "Continental scholars" hold to 9:9; Ps. Trans. The Israelites were a large crowd of adult men plus their families and live stock. 1979 The Brook of Egypt and Assyrian Policy on the Border of Egypt. 14:23-30; 15:4,5). idea. Not Egypt! The ground level is a few hundred feet below where the elevation is about 1900 ft. Further east the ground gets lower and lower, and only some ten miles away it reaches 900 ft elevation, and one can see dried up river beds. of Suez City between Ras el-'Adabiya and Birket Misallat. crossings. Apparently by a spike at the edge of the Stone to the wall. The southeastern view. H. The Pharaoh that matches the 1446 time frame is Thutmosis III the ‘Napoleon’ of ancient Egypt. However, I The proponents of this view are E. Robinson, A. Smith, E. H. Palmer (1977:35-37), Keil and Delitzsch, James Murphy, John Rea, J. McQuitty and G. Franz. The British Admiralty map 801 and the American NOAA map 62222 The photograph below taken by me is similar to what Ron has published in his article. On the other side of the Garden is believed to be the place where Stephen was stoned. Sinai] to my own land [Midian] and to Sinai) and Paran. A. Rainey. The Moslem pilgrims sit on the bench around it and dip their feet in the water flowing from the fountain. archaeological journal. This article will  show you that  the correct location for Mt. Other reason for not choosing the Haram will be given below. steps. There are three passages that deal with the topography of the Red Sea crossing. 20-33, 61-63. The ancient Greek OT (Septuagint) says this was the period spent in Canaan and Egypt, so it would seem Israel spent only 215 years in Egypt (perhaps 210 years, see later). 1992 Pi-Hahiroth. Others place Rameses Sinai is at Jebel al-Lawz in Saudi There are two instances of Israel visiting Mt. There is some level ground and some ground water, though. Sinai/Horeb. them camping by the sea beside Pi Hahiroth, before Baal Zephon." During the nearly one year stay there the Tabernacle was built and used for worship. A ‘sea of termination’ is what we call a ‘bay’ or ‘gulf’. 1990 Leaving Egypt. The Saudi fencing around the mountain has nothing to do with it being holy;it was for mere protection of Saudi property which began to attract so much attention.What about the other locations proposed? 12:40 to include both the sojourn in Canaan and Egypt to total 430 years is supported by Paul’s statement in Gal. Judas ‘confirmed’ the dream to the delight of Helena. SINAI IS NOT AT JEBEL EL-LAWZ IN SAUDI ARABIA- part 3. Aharoni describes the Two million Israelites, columns The second phase of the destruction took place when the Romans destroyed Jerusalem and burned the Temple in 70 AD. Due to the proximity of the Tomb, he believed this to be the place of Calvary. I will depart [from Mt. The 400 years started with the birth of Isaac. From Succoth they traveled day and night under the pillar of fire by night and the sheltering cloud by day until they reached Etham on the sixth day. March 14, 2003. The Land of Goshen was the eastern limits of Egypt. 15:22). L. Lesko, eds. Moses lifted up his rod and the LORD divided the sea with a wall on one side and on the other as well (Ex. It appears the name (k)Horeb was applied to the whole mountain range, so it is easy to understand that Moses could just walk to the edge of the mountain range and strike the rock there to produce water. kings tried to dig a canal to it [the Red Sea]. Williams, L. Atlas of Ancient Egypt – by John Baines and Jaromir Malik, 1980). Considering The Roman practice was pouring molten lead into the hole before inserting the iron nail. The nation of Egypt (Deut. in the Cairo Museum they would have noticed the chariots of Pharaoh 23:42-43). The capital moved to the south to Thebes during the 18th dynasty, and was moved to north to Avaris in the Delta during the 19th and 20th dynasties. and broad enough ­ and situated in water shallow enough ­ Paul would be perfectly correct in stating Mt. You will read below about these samples. This fortress would to the children of Israel, that they turn and camp before Pi Hahiroth, I may just point out that there is yet another Crucifixion site proposed by Dr. Martin (Secrets of Golgotha). The Romans used to crucify criminals on public roadsides, and this was a fitting place. To the southwest of it is Jebel Katherina, 7852 (2393 m) ft high in remembrance of St Catherine, a martyr in Alexandria whose remains are believed to be interred in the vicinity. Sea crossing. He also found the foundations of a room wall encompassing the slab and the hole. Later on, others such as Lennart Moller (The Exodus Case, 2000) also found some items particularly humans bones. These proponents want to take the archaeological evidence The Jewish scholars of the time including the renowned Maimonides insisted that it was not. 33:9). If Mt. 12:40 breaking the 430 years into two periods of 215 years each (critics accuse this is an alteration). This Kadesh was in Paran. 8:77). 15:22). Sin Bishar mountain would also satisfy the distance test. The main sites to be examined are the traditional Jebel Musa site, the Midian site Jabal al Lawz; other sites such as those marked in the map above will be examined only briefly. In New Testament times, this place was a Roman fort and a military camp called Fort Antonia. Ron had identified these sites near the western bank of the Dead Sea. 1912 A History of Egypt from the Earliest Times to the Persian is approximately 100 miles. It was Caliph Abd-el-Malik who built the Dome structure above the Rock (690 AD). He seems to favor a somewhat naturalistic explanation for a miraculous The site of the Dome of the Rock was a Christian holy site when Caliph Omar first visited Jerusalem in 638 AD. Sinai AD, based on the prior use by Herodotus, Pliny and Strabo, Arabia E. Frerichs and L. Lesko, 13:26) and Seir (Biblical Edom) This shows Mt. Apparently the destruction either did not decompose the limestone we see in the ash, or if did, the lime (calcium oxide), recombined with atmospheric carbon dioxide to form the carbonate again. I or III. 1986 The Location and Nature of the Red Sea Crossing. Some seemed to have gold rims which implied these were royal chariots. Ron remembered the Scripture account of the Crucifixion of Jesus where it is stated that at the time of Jesus’ death there was an earthquake and the ‘rocks were split’ (Matt. In fact the Roman legions left Jerusalem only in 289 AD. as it may sound to our ears to reckon a 'day's journey' as 42 his father-in-law depart [from Mt. 49:20, 21 are most likely referring to this gulf as well. It would be better to follow the example It was while Israel was in Rephidim (close to Mt. The eastern side of Mt. New York: Arno. According to the Number's itinerary, the Children of Israel cross where Etham was located. Sanitation would be a concern too. be supposed that the Israelites with women and children and flocks, I stayed in Suez City last May, I had dinner in a hotel over looking the Hebrews therein, led them forward for Mount Sinai, with intent